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Performance of Commercial Platforms for Rapid Genotyping of Polymorphisms Affecting Warfarin Dose

Cristi R. King, Rhonda M. Porche-Sorbet MS, Brian F. Gage MD, Paul M. Ridker MD, Yannick Renaud, Michael S. Phillips PhD, Charles Eby MD
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/1E34UAPR06PJ6HML 876-883 First published online: 1 June 2008


Initiation of warfarin therapy is associated with bleeding owing to its narrow therapeutic window and unpredictable therapeutic dose. Pharmacogenetic-based dosing algorithms can improve accuracy of initial warfarin dosing but require rapid genotyping for cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9) *2 and *3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) SNP. We evaluated 4 commercial systems: INFINITI analyzer (AutoGenomics, Carlsbad, CA), Invader assay (Third Wave Technologies, Madison, WI), Tag-It Mutation Detection assay (Luminex Molecular Diagnostics, formerly Tm Bioscience, Toronto, Canada), and Pyrosequencing (Biotage, Uppsala, Sweden). We genotyped 112 DNA samples and resolved any discrepancies with bidirectional sequencing.

The INFINITI analyzer was 100% accurate for all SNPs and required 8 hours. Invader and Tag-It were 100% accurate for CYP2C9 SNPs, 99% accurate for VKORC1 –1639/3673 SNP, and required 3 hours and 8 hours, respectively. Pyrosequencing was 99% accurate for CYP2C9 *2, 100% accurate for CYP2C9 *3, and 100% accurate for VKORC1 and required 4 hours. Current commercial platforms provide accurate and rapid genotypes for pharmacogenetic dosing during initiation of warfarin therapy.

Key Words:
  • Warfarin
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Genotyping
  • CYP2C9
  • VKORC1