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Significance of Lymphatic Invasion and Proliferation on Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

Yukio Ishikawa MD, Shinsuke Aida MD, Seiichi Tamai MD, Yoshikiyo Akasaka MD, Hideko Kiguchi MD, Yuri Akishima-Fukasawa MD, Masamichi Hayakawa MD, Shigehiro Soh MD, Kinji Ito MD, Masayo Kimura-Matsumoto PhD, Shigeki Ishiguro PhD, Chiaki Nishimura PhD, Itaru Kamata MD, Reiko Shimokawa MD, Toshiharu Ishii MD
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/0FT8WTDKREFHHP4P 198-207 First published online: 1 August 2007


We studied the associations of lymphatic invasion and lymphatic vessel density around tumors with lymph node (LN) status in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by immunohistochemical analysis using D2-40 antibody as a lymphatic marker. Surgically removed specimens from 76 cases with RCC, including 16 cases with LN metastasis, were used. Lymphatic vessel density around the tumor increased compared with normal kidneys but was not significant by LN status. Tumor size, tumor cell types, patterns of tumor growth, nuclear grade of tumor cells, venous invasion, lymphatic invasion, and primary tumor stage were predictive factors for LN metastasis. Based on multivariate regression analysis, only lymphatic invasion was an independent risk factor for LN metastasis. The immunohistochemical detection of lymphatics was useful for identifying the lymphatic invasion of RCC, and the presence of lymphatic invasion around RCC was an independent predictive factor for LN metastasis.

Key Words:
  • D2-40
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Lymphatic density
  • Lymphatic invasion
  • Lymph node metastasis
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor
  • VEGF-C