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Endoglin (CD105) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as Prognostic Markers in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Yasser M. El-Gohary MD, Jan F. Silverman MD, Peter R. Olson MD, Yulin L. Liu MD, PhD, Jeffrey K. Cohen MD, Ralph Miller MD, Reda S. Saad MD, PhD
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/X6NXYE57DLUE2NQ8 572-579 First published online: 1 April 2007

Abstract

We studied endoglin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as prognostic markers in prostatic adenocarcinoma in 50 radical prostatectomy specimens. Cases were further categorized by Gleason score as follows: 8 to 10, 9 cases; 7 (4 + 3), 9 cases; 7 (3 + 4), 14 cases; 6, 13 cases; and 4 or 5, 5 cases. All cases were immunostained for endoglin, CD31, and VEGF. Positively stained microvessels were counted in densely vascular foci in a ·400 field. VEGF staining intensity was scored on a 2-tiered scale. Results were correlated with survival and other parameters. Endoglin demonstrated significantly more microvessels than did CD31 (mean ± SD, 37 ± 15 vs 22 ± 17; P < .001). VEGF expression was low in 21 cases (42%) and high in 29 (58%). Endoglin correlated positively with Gleason score, lymph node metastases, tumor stage, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen level (P < .05) but not with CD31. VEGF correlated significantly with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score (P < .05). A high endoglin microvessel count and VEGF expression correlated with shorter survival. Endoglin is a more specific and sensitive marker for tumor angiogenesis than CD31 and may serve as a prognostic marker for prostatic adenocarcinoma.

Key Words:
  • Endoglin
  • Microvessel density
  • Prostatic carcinoma
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor
  • VEGF
  • CD31