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Benign Hematogone-Rich Lymphoid Proliferations Can Be Distinguished From B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia by Integration of Morphology, Immunophenotype, Adhesion Molecule Expression, and Architectural Features

Lisa M. Rimsza MD, Richard S. Larson MD, PhD, Stuart S. Winter MD, Kathy Foucar MD, Yap-Yee Chong MD, Kelly W. Garner BS, Catherine P. Leith MBBChir
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/LXU4-Q7Q9-3YAB-4QE0 66-75 First published online: 1 July 2000

Abstract

Distinction of normal B-lymphoid proliferations including precursors known as hematogones from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is critical for disease management. We present a multiparameter assessment of 27 bone marrow samples containing at least 25% hematogones (range, 25%–72%) by morphologic review. We used flow cytometry to evaluate B-cell differentiation antigen and adhesion molecule expression and immunohistochemistry on clot sections to evaluate architectural distribution. Flow cytometry revealed that intermediately differentiated cells (CD19+, CD10+) predominated, followed in frequency by CD20+, surface immunoglobulin–positive cells, with CD34+, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-positive cells as the smallest subset. Adhesion molecules (CD44, CD54) were expressed more heterogeneously compared with expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CD34+, TdT-positive cells were dispersed without significant clustering, while CD20+ cells exceeded CD34/TdT-positive cells in 24 of 25 cases. This multidisciplinary study demonstrates that hematogone-rich lymphoid proliferations exhibit a spectrum of B-lymphoid differentiation antigen expression with predominance of intermediate and mature B-lineage cells, heterogeneity of adhesion molecule expression, and nonclustered bone marrow architectural distribution.

Key Words:
  • Hematogones
  • Immunophenotype
  • Flow cytometry
  • Adhesion molecules
  • Clot sections
  • Immunohistochemistry